Satemizacija: Skirtumas tarp puslapio versijų

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![[Keltų kalbos|Keltų k.]]
| rowspan="4" |k|| colspan="2" |g||kw, p||b||gw
| rowspan="4" |k|| colspan="2" |g||kw, p<ref group="*">Within Celtic, the "p-Celtic" and "q-Celtic" branches have different reflexes of PIE *kʷ: *ekwos → ''ekwos'', ''epos''. The Brythonic and Lepontic languages are P-Celtic, Goidelic and Celtiberian are Q-Celtic and different dialects of Gaulish had different realisations.</ref>||b||gw
![[Italikų kalbos|Italikų k.]]
| rowspan="3" |g||g, h||kw, p||gw, v, b||f, v
| rowspan="3" |g||g, h<ref group="*">PIE *ǵʰ → Latin /h/ or /ɡ/, depending on its position in the word, and → Osco-Umbrian *kh → /h/.</ref>||kw, p<ref group="*" name="Latin kw">PIE *kʷ and *gʷ developed differently in the two Italic subgroups: /kw/, /w/ in Latin (*kwis → ''quis''), and /p/, /b/ in Osco-Umbrian (*kwis → ''pis'').</ref>||gw, v, b<ref group="*" name="Latin kw"/>||f, v
![[Senoji venetų kalba|Senoji venetų k.]]
![[Graikų kalba|Graikų k.]]
|kh||p, t, k||b, d, g
|kh||p, t, k<ref group="*" name="Greek kw">PIE *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ have three reflexes in Greek dialects such as Attic and Doric:
:/t, d, th/ before /e, i/ (IE *kʷis → Greek ''tis'')
:/k, ɡ, kh/ before /u/ (IE *wl̥kʷos → Greek ''lukos'')
:/p, b, ph/ before /a, o/ (IE *sekʷ- → Greek ''hep-'')
However, in Mycenaean Greek, *kw remained, and in Aeolian, it became /p/.</ref>||b, d, g<ref group="*" name="Greek kw"/>||ph, kh, th<ref group="*" name="Greek kw"/>
![[Frygų kalba|Frygų k.]]
|k||g||g, k||k||b||g
|k<ref group="*" name="Phrygian">The Phrygian evidence is limited and often ambiguous so the issue of ''centum'' vs. ''satem'' reflexes is not completely settled, but the prevailing opinion is that Phrygian shows ''centum'' reflexes along with secondary palatalisation of /k/ to /ts/ and /ɡ/ to /dz/ before front vowels, as in most Romance languages, see {{slink|Phrygian language|Phonology}}.</ref>||g<ref group="*" name="Phrygian"/>||g, k||k||b||g
![[Germanų kalbos|Germanų k.]]
|h||k||g ~ ɣ||hw||kw||gw ~ w
|h||k||g ~ ɣ<ref group="*" name="Germanic voiced">Proto-Germanic reflexes of Indo-European voiced stops had spirant allophones, retained in intervocalic position in [[Gothic language|Gothic]].</ref>||hw||kw||gw<ref group="*" name="Germanic gw">This is the reflex after nasals. The outcome in other positions is disputed and may vary according to phonetic environment. See the note in {{slink|Grimm's law|In detail}}.</ref> ~ w<ref group="*" name="Germanic voiced"/>
![[Anatolų kalbos|Anatolų k.]]
|k,|| colspan="2" |g, k||kw, kkw|| colspan="2" |gw, kw
|k,<ref group="*">In Luvic languages, yielding ''ts'', at least under most circumstances.</ref> kk<ref group="*" name="Anatolian fortis">Non-initial</ref>|| colspan="2" |g,<ref group="*" name="Luvic voiced g">In Luvic languages, usually becoming *y initially, lost intervocalically.</ref> k<ref group="*" name="Anatolian lenis">Non-initial</ref>||kw, kkw<ref group="*" name="Anatolian fortis">Non-initial</ref>|| colspan="2" |gw,<ref group="*" name="Luvic voiced gw">In Luvic languages, yielding simple ''w''.</ref> kw<ref group="*" name="Anatolian lenis">Non-initial</ref>
![[Tocharų kalbos|Tocharų k.]]
| colspan="3" |k|| colspan="3" |k, kw
![[Albanų kalba|Albanų k.]]
![[Albanų kalba|Albanų k.]]<ref>Orel, Vladimir (2000). ''A CONCISE HISTORICAL GRAMMAR OF THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE: Reconstruction of Proto-Albanian''. Pages 66-72. Historic palatalizations further discussed on pages 72-77, palatalization of former velar sounds specifically 72-74.</ref>
|θ, c, k|| colspan="2" |ð, d ||k, c, s|| colspan="2" |g, ɟ, z
|θ, c, k<ref group="*" name="thentum">PIE *ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ mostly became affricates in Early Albanian /ts/ and /dz/ and then were fronted further to /θ/ and /ð/. However in specific contexts, one or both processes didn't occur so some instances were preserved as velar (Alb. ''krah'', for example) while others ended up as /s/ and /z/, /ts/ and /dz/ or /c/ and /ɟ/ according to context. Furthermore the fricative /ð/ has become a stop /d/ in specific contexts in the modern language</ref>|| colspan="2" |ð, d<ref group="*" name="thentum"/> ||k, c, s|| colspan="2" |g, ɟ, z
![[Trakų kalba|Trakų k.]]
![[Indoarijų kalbos|Indų k.]]
|ś||dž||h<ref group="*" name="II *gjh">pIE *ǵʰ → proto-Indo-Iranian *džjh → Indic /h/, Iranian /z/.</ref>|| rowspan="2" |k, č||g||gh
![[Iranėnų kalbos|Iranėnų k.]]
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