Švedijos politinė sistema: Skirtumas tarp puslapio versijų

2 685 baitai pašalinti ,  prieš 9 metus
nėra keitimo aprašymo
S (r2.7.1) (robotas Pridedama: en:Politics of Sweden)
The Ministers are appointed by the Prime Minister without any confirmation of the Parliament. The Prime Minister is first appointed by the Speaker of Parliament and then confirmed by Parliament. The monarch plays no part in this process.
==[[Įstatymų leidžiamoji valdžia]]==
== Legislative branch ==
{{main|Parliament of Sweden}}
[[Įstatymų leidžiamoji valdžia]] yra vienų rūmų [[parlamentas]], vadinamas ''Riksdagu''. 349 parlamento nariai renkami visuotiniuose rinkimuose ketveriems metams, remiantis proporcine [[rinkimų sistema]]. Iki [[1975]] m. parlamentas buvo dviejų rūmų. Sesijos vyksta nuo rugsėjo iki birželio.
The unicameral [[Parliament of Sweden|Riksdag]] has 349 members, popularly elected every 4 years. It is in session generally from September through mid-June.
[[Image:Riksdagen-fran-vattnet-2004-05-09.jpg|thumb|220px|The Riksdag in Stockholm]]
[[Image:Riksdag assembly hall 2006.jpg|right|thumb|220px|Inside the Riksdag]]
Legislation may be initiated by the [[Government of Sweden|Cabinet]] or by members of Parliament. Members are elected on the basis of [[proportional representation]] for a four-year term. The Riksdag can alter the [[Constitution of Sweden]], but only with approval by a [[supermajority]] and confirmation after the following general elections.
The [[Swedish Social Democratic Party]] has played a leading political role since 1917, after [[Reformist]]s confirmed their strength and the [[Left Party (Sweden)|revolutionaries]] left the party. After 1932, the [[Government of Sweden|Cabinets]] have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only four general elections (1976, 1979, 1991 and 2006) have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in Parliament to form a government. This is considered one reason for the Swedish post-war [[welfare state]], with a government expenditure of slightly more than 50% of the [[gross domestic product]].
==[[Teisminė valdžia]]==
== Political parties and elections ==
{{elect|List of political parties in Sweden|Elections in Sweden}}
{{Main|Sweden general election, 2010}}
{{Swedish general election, 2010}}
== Judiciary ==
{{main|Judiciary of Sweden}}
Swedish law, drawing on Germanic, Roman, and Anglo-American law, is neither as codified as in [[France]] and other countries influenced by the [[Napoleonic Code]], nor as dependent on judicial practice and precedents as in the [[United States]].
== Tarptautiniai santykiai ==
== Foreign relations ==
{{main|Foreign relations of Sweden}}
Throughout the 20th century, [[Swedish foreign policy]] was based on the principle of [[Non-Aligned Movement|non-alignment]] in peacetime, [[Neutral country|neutrality]] in wartime. This principle have often been criticised in Sweden, allegedly being a facade, claiming that the Swedish government had an advanced collaboration with western countries within [[NATO]].
During [[Cold War]] era politics, Sweden was not under the [[Warsaw Pact]] and received only minimal aid from the [[Marshall Plan]]. In 1952, a Swedish [[DC-3]] was [[Catalina affair|shot down]] over the Baltic Sea while gathering reconnaissance. It was later revealed that the plane had been shot down by the Soviet Union. Another plane, a [[PBY Catalina|Catalina]] [[search and rescue]] craft, was sent out a few days later and shot down by Soviets warplanes as well.
Sweden was the first western nation to detect unusually high [[radiation]] levels in the atmosphere, which later was confirmed to have been the residual nuclear fallout from the [[Chernobyl disaster|Chernobyl accident]].
Sweden is also very active in international peace efforts, especially through the [[United Nations]], and in support to the [[Third World]].
In 1995 Sweden together with [[Finland]] and [[Austria]] joined the [[European Union]], extending the number of member countries from 12 to 15. Membership and its issues are among the most important questions in Swedish politics. Apart from the European Union Sweden is also an active member of the [[UN]] and several other organisations such as [[OECD]] and [[IMF]].
== See also ==
*[[Referendums in Sweden]]
*[[List of political parties in Sweden]]
*[[Swedish Armed Forces]]
== References ==
== Further reading ==
*[[CIA World Factbook]] - [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html Sweden]
*[[United States Department of State]] - [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2880.htm Sweden]
*CCPI, Jan Burck, Christoph Bals, Marisa Beck and Elisabeth Rüthlein. "Climate Change Performance Index2008." December 2007. Germanwatch. <http://www.germanwatch.org/klima/ccpi2008.pdf>.
*Jenny Hansson, 2008. Report on Swedish national parliamentarians' work hours, sleep and life satisfaction. "De Folkvaldas Livsvillkor". http://www8.umu.se/soc/personal/Jenny%20Hanssons%20avhandlingsarbete.%20Presentation%20samt%20.pdf
== External links ==
*[http://www.riksdagen.se/default____56.aspx The Riksdag (the Swedish Parliament)]
*[http://www.royalcourt.se/index.html The Royal Court of Sweden]
*[http://www.regeringen.se/sb/d/9395 How Sweden is governed] - Swedish Government
*[http://www.thelocal.se/guides/?to=swedish_election_sweden Guide to the Swedish Election 2006] - [[The Local]]
9 927