Slavų mitologija: Skirtumas tarp puslapio versijų

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'''Slavų mitologija''' - senoji slavų mitologija ir religija vystėsi 3000 metų. Ji gimininga [[Lietuvių mitologija]]i, nes kaip ir pastarosios, jos pagrindas yra senųjų [[indoeuropiečiai|indoeuropiečių]] [[mitologija]]. Slavų mitologija apima visų [[slavai|slavų]] tautų mitologijas. Čia pateikiami pagrindiniai jų bruožai.
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== Šaltiniai ==
[[Slavai]], kaip ir [[baltai]] ilgai neturėjo savo rašto, taigi pagrindiniai šaltiniai yra labai fragmentiški senųjų autorių paminėjimai, taip pat [[tautosaka|tautosakos]] duomenys.
 
== Kalendorius ir šventės ==
Senovės slavų religija ir pagrindinės apeigos buvo susijusios su metų ciklu. Remiantis įvairiais šaltiniais ir išlikusia liaudies tradicija atkuriamos senosios slavų kalendorinės šventės.
 
* Metai buvo dalinami pagal mėnulio ciklus (mėnesius) ir prasidėdavo Kovo mėnesį. Paskutinė metų naktis/diena vadinta Velja Noč/Velik Dan (Didžioji naktis/savaitė) Priėmus krikščionybę ši šventė tapo Velykomis. Beabejo, toks pavadinimas galėjo atsirasti ir dėl graikiško Velykų pavadinimo Megale Hemera (Didžioji savaitė). Pagonybės laikais Velykos buvo švenčiamos panašiai kaip [[Vėlinės]] arba keltų [[Halovynas]]. Po kaimus vaikščiodavo persirengėliai, liaudyje tikėta, jog po namus klajoja protėvių vėlės. Greičiausiai šios šventės globėjas buvo Velesas, [[požeminis pasaulis|požeminio pasaulio]] dievas, artimas lietuvių [[Velnias|Velniui]].
* Didžiulis pavasario festivalis buvo pašvęstas Jarilui - augmenijos dievui. Jaunuoliai keliaudavo per kaimus nešdami žalumynus ir gėles - naujos gyvybės simbolius. Eisenas vesdavo jaunuoliai ant žirgų, pamėgdžiodami Jarilą. Didelę reikšmę turėjo velykiniai margučiai, simbolizuojantys atgimstantį pasaulį. Ši tradicija buvo perimta ir krikščioniškųjų Velykų.
* Vasaros saulėgrįža šiandien įvairiai vadinama: Ivanje, Kupala, Krijes'as. Šios šventės metu žmonės tuokdavosi, taip pat tam tikri šaltiniai rodo, jog galėjo būti atliekamos [[orgija|orgijos]]. Žmonės švęsdami šią šventę daug valgydavo, gerdavo, šokdavo ratelius, degindavo laužus ir per juos šokinėdavo. Merginos pindavo vainikus ir burdavo iš žolių, kada susituoksią. Greičiausiai šventė buvo skirta augmenijos, vaisingumo ar santuokos dievybėms. Pastebėtina, jog ši šventė labai artima lietuvių [[Rasos|Rasoms]], [[Kupolinės|Kupolinėms]] ir [[Joninės|Joninėms]].
* Vidurvasario šventė buvo skirta griaustinio dievui Perunui. Priėmus krikščionybę ji paversta į [[Šventasis Elijas|Šventojo Elijo]] šventę. Kai kurie duomenys leidžia manyti, jog senovėj vykdyti net žmonių aukojimai. Po šios šventės prasidėdavo derliaus nuėmimas.
* Derliaus šventė - tiksliai nežinoma, kada ji švęsta, tačiau yra duomenų, jog Riugeno saloje ji švęsta Svantevito šventykloje.
* Veikiausiai švęsta ir žiemos saulėgrįža per Kalėdas. Ši šventė greičiausiai buvo pašvęsta saulės dievui Svarogui. Dar ši šventė vadinama Karačunu.
 
== Kosmologija ==
Galimas daiktas, jog slavai pasaulio struktūrą įsivaizdavo kaip medį, tokių užuominų gausu folklore.
 
Saulė buvo moteriška dievybė, o Mėnuo vyriška. Taip pat kaip ir [[Baltų mitologija|baltų]] bei [[Germanų mitologijoje]].
 
== Panteonas ==
Slavų mitologijoje buvo daugybė dievų, kiekviena gentis ir giminė turėjo savus dievus. Čia pateikiamas pagrindinis slavų [[panteonas]].
 
=== Aukščiausiasis dangaus dievas ===
=== Perunas ir Velesas ===
=== Jarilas ir Morana ===
=== Svarogas, Svarožicas, Dažbogas ===
=== Švantevitas ir Triglavas ===
=== Zoria ir Danica ===
== Kitos būtybės ==
== Nuorodos ==
== Išnašos ==
 
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[[Kategorija:Slavų mitologija| ]]
 
[[bg:Славянска религия]]
[[bs:Slavenska mitologija]]
[[cs:Slovanská mytologie]]
[[de:Slawische Mythologie]]
[[el:Σλαβική μυθολογία]]
[[en:Slavic mythology]]
[[es:Mitología eslava]]
[[fi:Slaavilainen mytologia]]
[[fr:Mythologie slave]]
[[he:מיתולוגיה סלאבית]]
[[hr:Slavenska mitologija]]
[[it:Mitologia slava]]
[[ja:スラヴ神話]]
[[mk:Словенска митологија]]
[[nl:Slavische mythologie]]
[[pl:Religia Słowian]]
[[pt:Mitologia eslava]]
[[ru:Славянская мифология]]
[[sk:Slovanská mytológia]]
[[sl:Slovanska mitologija]]
[[sr:Словенска божанства и митолошка бића]]
[[sv:Slavisk mytologi]]
[[tg:Ривоятҳои Славяни]]
[[uk:Українська міфологія]]
[[zh:斯拉夫神話]]
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